Stem cells are the basic building blocks of the human body. They are responsible for creating, replenishing and rejuvenating over 200 of our body's cell-types. Stem cell research is an exciting new frontier for scientists and patients who are looking for cures. It is also one of our country's most hotly debated issues.
There are two main sources of stem cells used for research: embryonic and adult. Embryonic stem cells are found in a human embryo, and, in order to harvest these cells for research, the young life must be destroyed.
Adult stem cells – also referred to as non-embryonic stem cells – come from a variety of sources in the human body and do not require the destruction of young human life. Adult stem cells can currently be obtained from bone marrow, nasal tissue, fat, blood, brain tissue, amniotic fluid and umbilical cord blood. It seems like new sources of adult stem cells are found nearly every day.
Adult stem cell research has provided treatments and cures for patients suffering from over 70 diseases and conditions. Contrary to these successes, destructive embryonic stem cell research has yet to provide any successful treatments for patients.
Proponents of embryonic stem cell research have said the lack of success with these cells is due to the shortage of embryos available for research. This has led researchers to attempt the cloning of human embryos, raising further debate over the creation and destruction of human life.
In direct contrast to the life-destroying embryonic stem cells, a new type of ethical research that uses ordinary adult body cells is providing scientists and patients with hope for ethical research options.
This new research uses ordinary adult body cells – like skin cells – and, with some added growth factors, prompts them to become embryonic-like stem cells. These induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) have the flexibility (pluripotency) of embryonic stem cells without the moral problems of destroying human life.
The discovery of this new technique has led to a surprising shift in tone with researchers who have been strong advocates for embryonic stem cell research. The monopoly of media attention and science rhetoric which has long been skewed toward destructive embryonic stem cell research seems to be cracking.